What Light is and How It Works
Seemingly thee most mysterious of the phenomenons out there.
But it’s not mysterious at all. Here is a complete and detailed description of light. The facts are solid. Everything we put forth is already proven physics. What we present here answers all the questions. And not just of light itself.
First, here is what is currently known and/or believed.
Light is said to be the fastest speed in the cosmos. That speed being approximately 186,000 miles a second and referred to as 'c' for conversation, calculus, and its constant...
And here are its paradoxes.
Light measures 'c' whatever speed or direction you or it’s source are moving. ??
Light appears to be a particle at times and a wave at other times. ??
Light ‘photons’ are said to be mass-less but apparently can be deflected by gravity anyway. ??
And it is also said that the particle and wave characteristic is of a dual nature. Meaning that ‘photons’ are both a particle with mass and a wave without mass at the very same time.
This did not compute.
There had to be a better explanation. and there is..!
But to be honest.., all this below should already be known... I do not understand why we keep being told the crap we hear about light and the cosmos in general on TV. I cannot be the only one who sees this.
But then again I understand that many peopole out there have to stay with the weird un scientific imaginations mentioned above rather than accepting a totally proven physics explanation.
People just love weird and sci-fri. And they are certainly both. :)
First of all we do not believe photons actually exist. At least as they are said to be involved in the production of light. They are an imagined explanation that Newton came up with 400 years ago. He called them corpuscles then. But they were more recently renamed photons, apparently to make them sound more legitimate.
Here is why they cannot exist..:
Photons are said to be single frequency tiny bits of nothing that always seem to produce white light in those single photon experiments I've seen done... ??
They also say photons know enough to line up in the right frequency order and amplitude to reproduce a digital version of the entire analog EM spectrum. ??
So if they existed they would be there for the *entire* spectrum, not just the visible. The cosmos would not have known the frequencies our evolution would choose for us to see by. But for now we’ll just look at the visible light spectrum..
There are supposed to be enough photons coming at us, needed or not, from all light producing sources, to match up with the infinite number of wavelength starting points that are possible between any two consecutive peaks of the visible spectrum. There has to be enough of them available, constantly and continuously, to be sure they can handle the particular color my living room happens to be. :) That’s one infinity
And that's not counting all the other pairs of consecutive peaks in the rest of the visible EM spectrum. Pretty much an infinite number for every peak of the cosmic wide spectrum. To light every tiny nook and cranny color and intensity on the surface on earth. So the number of photons that need to be on call at all times everywhere, needed or not, is something like infinity times infinity. Or more like infinity^3..?
(I hope everyone gets the humor and sarcasm there. ) But no matter.., there really are not even enough electrons to be able to produce that many photons. They are imagined. :/
And yes. Least we forget.. Photons are supposed to have the amazing feat of non-science (nonsense) ‘Duality’... Their ability to be a massless wave and a particle with mass at the same time. Also to be in two places at once, and to hide when someone is watching them.
But if you want to believe in them, go right ahead. You’ll just spend your life believing in magic instead of proven physics.. :)
It is what I call the precursor to light. Instead of photons, light is brought to us by real life *electrons*. Yup. They have been proven to fulfill every feature and fact we have observed about light. They are also the long suspected particle portion of light’s delivery and creation.. They have the mass that can be and is diverted by outside gravity sources, and that mass is also the weight that can move things that ‘light’ hits.
It is the particle, with mass, that produces the massless ‘pilot’ wave. With absolutely and positively no duality. The concept of duality is just dumb.
Electrons are the ‘precursors’ to light because they do not produce visible light themselves. But they do cause it to be created on whatever surface they happen to hit.
The facts on light are totally observable. There is no light between any source and the surfaces it illuminates. The sky is black at night. That one has been driving people nuts for a long time as to why. With all the suns in all the galaxies emitting ‘light’ from everywhere, it stands to ‘their’ reasoning power that the sky should be awash with light.
You can also check out a local light show.. You’ll see that they have to put mist in the air to be able to see any light beam at all. No mist, no light show. You can also prove this yourself by bringing a flashlight into a dark room and shining it on the wall. You will see the light coming at you from the wall but you will not see the beam that is making it happen.
How Visible Light Is Produced.
The ejected electron Is bringing its pilot wave with it and blue shifting it as it travels forward from source to surface. This is exactly the same Doppler effect as the engine whistle is, while being blue shifted by the engine keeping up with it to some extent. Picture a line of people standing perpendicular to and equally spaced outward from the tracks ahead of a fast approaching train. And that when the engine blew it’s whistle the person directly ahead of the train would heard the whistle tone much higher than it actually was. And each of those people standing increasingly further from the track would hear slightly lower frequency tones until the furthest may not hear any difference at all. The people represent the ‘surface’ in the case of light’s production.
The highest end of the spectrum that an electron can produce is anywhere from zero to somewhat above the visible range. Depending on it’s particular incoming speed.
What it amounts to, with the electrons radiating their pilot wave outward in all directions at once, and talking only about the visible section of the spectrum for now, we’ll see that a visible circular rainbow is formed. You would see the highest frequency colors hit first, in a circle close to the center, followed by each lower frequency, cycle by cycle, laying down the rest of the circular rainbow of rings moving outward.
But looking in the forward direction again, with a graphic to illustrate it, the circular wave front will, degree by degree, become longer as the blue shifting lessens. This continuous lengthening produces an electromagnetic spectrum which is laid down on any surface the electron hits. From the highest frequency cycles or hertz that the electron speed is capable of producing to the lowest that may well be cosmos long.
In the text of this graphic please read ‘photon’ and
‘messenger photon’ as ‘electron’ and ‘precursor (to light) electron’.
And here’s a drawing I did years ago but just updated.
Since our cave days and only the visible spectrum being used, science has developed devices that can see above and below what we know as visible light. Because it’s really all the same spectrum. Science now searches the cosmos using it's x-rays and microwaves. And as above, those frequencies are brought to us by precursor electrons too.
Hubble’s Red Shift.
It is the electron’s pilot wave that comes to produce the spectrum that we to see by. The high end of that spectrum will depend entirely on the energy behind the electron's ejection. But they can come in very slow too. Heated objects like bars of iron, living bodies, light bulbs, etc. on up to our sun, will usually be from below and up to just above the ‘visible’ wavelengths. And from there to all those below. Microwave and all the lower radio wavelengths. There are higher incoming frequencies from x-rays and higher but we’re not concerned with them right now They will be mostly the same process but coming in with much more energy and speed.
IIt’s only the visible spectrum that has the wavelengths of the right sizes to match the sizes of the molecules in surfaces that wil reflect them to e seen.to react to. According to the surface consistency and molecule sizes, they will reflect, refract, filter, prism, absorb, block, or pass through the wave lengths that are laid on them. And when we look directly at a light source those waves are spread out on the eyeballs, thence to our retinas.
The spectrum is of course more than we need for light and sight. But what did the cosmos know. We figured out other uses for the rest anyway. :
Light’s Magical Powers
It does have a constant speed but not as it’s thought to happen.
There is no magic..!
It’s commonly accepted that if you were to shine a light toward the nose of a space ship traveling at one half 'c', light would measure 'c'. And if you were to shine a light to the rear of that space ship traveling forward at one half 'c', the light would measure 'c' again. Sounds impossible..? Yes it does.
But it's obviously possible because we are on the space ship earth. And we are traveling through the cosmos pretty fast ourselves. And likewise, it applies in every case where light is seen by eyes or measured by devices while traveling at any speed through the cosmos.
What is happening in truth..?
The electrons and their pilot waves they generate (not photons) travel at their particular rates of speed throughout the cosmos as determined by the energy of their send off, and not influenced at all by any sense of relativity. They don’t know earth or any other frames exist.
Light waves themselves propagate across your living room or the cosmos equally at whatever speed it has. We measure it as ‘c’ but that’s only our measurement from earth’s POV. Light does have a constant speed. But it is not done how we think it is. How it comes to maintain that speed. It does not adjust to us. We adjust to it.
The speed of the in coming precursor electron determines the highest frequency of the EM spectrum that it’s able to blue-shift its pilot wave to and produce. The difference between red suns and blue suns for one.
It is commonly believed that it is the light that arranges to match our different speeds and directions so that it is always ‘c’. But not..!
When we’re on the ground we can measure blue at 470 nm. And when we get on a plane and measure blue we again find it at 470 nm. As expected...
But.., it is not the same peak we were looking at on the ground. That peak is now somewhere up in the area of x-rays., and the peak we’re looking at in the plane was down in the red area when we were on the ground.
Because light waves are no different than any other wave. They can be red and blue shifted just as any of them can be. Light does not hold a special place in physics. To think so is totally foolish. The public buys it because they believe those who are supposed to know what they’re talking about. Those so called gods from the past. Einstein, Newton, et al.. Those who were supposed to actually know what relativity was about.
So here’s what they missed. In the case of light, it is a matter of the frame we and our measuring devices are in. And while people may think there are set speeds to frames, like *earth’s*, they are in fact very fluid and always changing. Every atom in our body has it’s own constantly changing frame. Every atom is the center of its own universe. Each atom’s particular speed is causing it’s rate of operation and aging speed inversely to the slightest difference in it’s movement through the cosmos. See the section on Gravity and Relativity to know why and how this happens.
When we increased our speed by being on the plane, we slowed our entire aging process. Our brains and perceptions slowed inversely to our change in speed. So we looked for a lower and longer wavelength to equal our evolved need to see blue at 470 nm.
As the light waves were being blue shifted while traveling faster on the plane, our brain did not follow them up as it would with the train whistle. We stayed with the need for a particular wave *length* instead. We found it on the spectrum where the previous longer red wavelength had been blue shifted up to be the shorter 470 nm.,
Our rate of aging and perception changes. Light does not change for us. It doesn't even know we exist. Much less how fast we’re moving.
And of course the same thing happens to the atoms of our measuring devices. Everything stays at what is called ‘rest’ but in fact there’s a lot of moving going on. Our devices like clocks and light measuring instruments are running slower now too and so they see the same as we do with our brains. They will always measure blue at 470 nm and it’s speed as ‘c’... Relativity simply cancels out the Doppler.
It’s a piece of cake.
A reiteration and few more details.
Whatever speed and direction the electrons are given they will normally continue under straight line inertia until they hit something. And depending on when and where that happens and what that surface is, it produces the particular reaction to the light it is capable of. As mentioned above. Reflection, Refraction,etc.
Having mass explains how light paths can be bent by outside gravity sources. Large bodies in the cosmos cause what’s called gravitational lensing. Just as what is done to electrons with electromagnetic attraction in the neck of a CRT to cause the raster to be formed on its screen.
Light Dying Over Distance.
What with light being brought to us by electrons, we need talk about how they obviously slow down in their trip from the edge of the cosmos or any other light source out there. The illusion of red shift seems to be this very gradual deceleration as the electrons travel from their sources.
I believe it is a counter EMF or other payback that happens from continuously creating their pilot wave as they travel. Conservation of energy again.
This is all part of the overall picture.
The electron and pilot wave is emitted from a source at the edge of our visible universe. It is blasted towards us with enough speed to blue shift it’s pilot wave all the way up to untra violet and maybe low x-ray frequencies. As it speeds towards us it is producing this pilot wave. Much like a boat coming through water. The waves in the line of travel are blue shifted the most, so are the shortest and most compacted. They are the untraviolet waves and whatever else may be in the unseen above..
As the electron plows through space, which is filled with the Electro Magnetic Aether (Gravity) medium, it is slowed by the effort of perturbing that medium. As a boat is held back by producing water waves. With no continued energy input it has to slow bit by bit.. And as it slows it is unable to maintain the blue shift level in the forward direction. So little by little it loses its ability to produce the upper most frequencies. The x-ray frequencies are lost and the top end is now down to Ultra-violet. And with continued slowing the top is continuously cut off cycle by cycle. Through the violet, blue, green, etc..
This continuous dying, the dropping of the uppermost frequencies, is what gave Hubble the impression of red-shift. With the top end being lowered the entire spectrum produced on the lenses, etc. was shifted upward by default. Then, as the top end was finally cutting into the blue and green, it gave the rest of the visible spectrum much more prominence.
That's the point where they see the apparently faster and faster red shift starting to happen and so the totally inexplicable and imagined ‘Dark Energy’ is called into play.
And of course as the electron reaches it’s maximum 45 bly light producing travel limit.., and has slowed to where the top end of its spectrum is reduced to frequencies below the visible, is where they start to use microwaves to observe the cosmos.
So it all fits.. Everything in the book ties together.
Not Invarient. Not Magic. *Relativity*
Each inertial frame is presented with the exact same phenomenon of light at these cosmic wide distribution speeds. The electrons speeding through the cosmos, under Inertia and not affected by Gravity (Aether) and the pilot and light waves they cause are being sent at ‘c’ through that universal Aether.
The light that is measured in the space ship and on the earth is the same light traveling at the very same speed. The only difference being the aging rates of the atoms in the particular inertial frames viewing it. And so the slowing of the workings of the atom is what brings on the perception or brain speeds are the true cause and result of relativity.
Not gravity. Gravity is a by product..
In a nutshell, individuals in any inertial frame, whether it be on earth, in a space ship, or any other velocity, are simply selecting the 'section' of the cosmic wide electromagnetic spectrum that fits their need to see particular wave *lengths*. Their atom's speed of operation, its velocity induced ‘aging’ speed.... Visible light will appear to humans at the portion of the cosmos spectrum that matches the wavelengths their eyes and minds have evolved to see as visible light. Whatever the section of the cosmic EMR that is producing visible light in human eyes will be seen to be the same earth bound frequency range by all measuring devices, atomic clocks, etc. in any frame. The ‘section’ of the cosmos EM spectrum being used will be different... That's all that changes...
But it seems no one today sees that... ‘Cept me I should add. No one has in the past either. Newton, Einstein, etc.
But all in all, it is a pretty sure bet that if you're physically aging slower and your perceptions are slower accordingly, and you want to paint your room blue, your brain is going to want to see a wavelength that relates to blue to your eyes and slowed mind. So you will see blue at a lower peak of the cosmic spectrum than you would if you were aging faster at a slower velocity. Actually what you see is the lower frequencies that have been blue shifted upward to become those shorter lengths. Again, relativity cancels Doppler to our eyes and brain.
This is of course true relativity. NOT as it is currently understood to be related to time stretching, dilating, etc. Time is not relative... Time is nothing.
Extending this thinking further, we know that in all frames where people are seeing visible light, there is a frequency range above it that we on earth call x-rays. And while it is known in earth's inertial frame that x-rays are dangerous to humans.., if we were in a *slower* velocity frame, with perceptions and aging running faster, those x-rays would still be dangerous in earth’s frame. But in our new frame they would just be seen as the color blue again.., and not considered dangerous.
The reason being with our faster rate of living *and dying* in that new frame they would not affect us quickly enough. And we do have our own healing ability too, from what damage they might do in the meantime...
That of course brings on the thought that we're being damaged at a very slow rate by the color blue right now. In fact we are. Because it still is another frame's x-rays. You can actually see that damage if you look at the back of your couch that has been facing the picture window for awhile. It will rot over time. Or a wall where a picture had been hanging for awhile. Much longer exposure with no self healing ability either.
In other words, the entire spectrum, even those frequencies we think don't exist, those below our zero, those that take a decade or more for a single cycle here on earth may be the color blue to some extremely high velocity viewer. It's all relative you know..? This is how it works. I just don't know the limits... If there are any.
And in case you puzzle over surfaces reflecting higher or lower peaks according to the frame they’re doing, remember that the paint's molecules do the relativistic contraction and expansion thing too. The size of any surface molecules determine what colors are reflected from it but that size is also inverse to velocity differences..
As the electron particle travels, its forward going wave front is blue shifted to produce the cosmic EM spectrum. That’s including the 'visible' range, when it hits a surface and the EM spectrum is spread out on it..
Some of the spectrum's waves are then reflected to our eyes. THIS then is the when, where, and how the EMS is effectively created and visible frequencies are reflected to and seen by our eyes... Or when we look directly at a source, the electron comes directly to eyeballs. That is the surface the spectrum then gets spread on. This is the reason we can't see light leaving us or traveling in any direction other than straight into our eyes.. Other direction's electrons are not hitting our eyes straight on and so to not create any spectrum.
A simple verification of this 'straight on' factor is to consider a single point source that two people can see coming at them. Each can see the electrons coming into their own eyes but not the other's I expect if it were otherwise we would all see nothing but a continuous glare of white light all around us, as mentioned earlier.
But the electrons are still there. Because either person can put their hand in the path going to the other person's eyes and see the reflection from those otherwise invisible precursor particles hitting and lighting the hand itself. The visible frequencies are created on your hand or whatever other surface and sent out in their own circular wave front to everyones eyes.
The original incoming visible section of the EM spectrum is normally seen as white as it contains all the colors. But reflections carry only the frequency of the color a particular surface is capable of returning, such as blue at 475 nm. Reflections also tell us the distance the surface is from our eyes by hitting each eye from a slightly different angle. And so with millions or billions of electron particle wave reflections working together we're able to see the three dimensional room we're in. Not well, but enough for human use.
‘Not well’ meaning that it is incoherent light. Many frequencies mix with the result that they cancel out to various extents, including totally. So our brain has to make sense of it all and pull visible light frequencies from that sludge of lowered energy. On the other hand, with coherent light where all peaks and valleys of a particular frequency are brought into line, it can cut steel. No sludge..! :)
The rest is that, upon arrival, the electrons particles are absorbed into the surfaces they hit, along with all of the non-reflected waves, which degrades that surface over time.
So watch what you watch.
A Summary.., Sort Of...
I'd like to say I'm only human. And that I have no idea of how low or slow, or high and fast the cosmos works. We know many things but I'm sure much more goes on that we earth-bounders can't feel, measure, see, or believe... That an atom in my fingertip can affect atoms in the Andromeda Galaxy gives some idea of this. That such a wide range of frequencies can be brought to us by a particle trying to get through the attractions and obstacles of the cosmos, to travel so far and to have its radiations travel so much further when reflected back additional great distances such as views we can see from mountain tops or that of the moon is mind-boggling. The energy levels expended and the potentials that seem to abound in the cosmos are tremendous, or on the other hand there are those that are immeasurably weak and inconsequential as seen from our POV too. But obviously to the cosmos they are both an equal part of it. Forces that are more invasive and controlling than we not-totally-sentient beings can imagine.
Twin Slit Experiment.
Electrons are what are working in the twin slit. Not photons.
Electrons obit their atoms as bits of matter and not a cloud. As described in the chapter on the Atom.
When excited and expelled from any source, electrons bring with them a ‘pilot wave’. The force of their send off is what determines their speed, which then determines if they can produce visible light or not. If so, this is what they bring to the slits.
They do not come as waves themselves. That’s duality and not science. Duality is dumb.
In any case, it is apparently the ultimate challenge to discovering how light produces the various results it gives. I have heard it said that if one does, they get the Nobel Prize.
So I will do that. Lets see how much of it is true, eh? :)
The experiment can be carried out using the sun, lasers, or even incoherent incandescent light. And they all give basically the same result. Two surfaces are set up one behind the other. The near surface having two side-by-side slits, each just wide enough to pass a vertical column of electrons. The near surface then has a light source applied to it to see what transpires.
And btw, this experiment is able to be carried out with electrons. It’s done quite often. Electrons produce the very same result as when they *think* they are using photons... They’re really using electrons and they don’t know it. lol
And it does show that my thought that photons don’t exist, or need to exist, is probably viable.
What does transpire is what those precursor-to-visible light electrons emitted from a source are radiating their pilot waves (de Broglie and others) as they approach a surface, and as described in the main section on Light all the electron’s blue shifted pilot waves hit all over that surface and, similar to a train whistle will have a higher pitch to one standing ahead near the track.., and a lower and lower tone for each of those standing at regular distances away from the track, the pilot wave produces a similar spectrum of EM wavelengths. From the highest determined by it’s speed to the lowest.
They are all reflected back to the viewer from the front wall.. Everything is normal.
As some of the precursor electrons move through the slits, their radiated waves will again propagate forward and outward to reflect off the entire far wall. With one slit open the back wall be covered with light, with a significantly brighter vertical area that in line with the open slit...
Because.., as each precursor to light electron proceed toward the far wall the width of its effective wave-front coverage contracts inward as it’s circular rings of visible color, those which are producing ‘white’ on the back wall, become smaller and smaller.
When it is very close to the far wall its radiated circular rainbow of visible light diameter will only encompass the area directly in line with its own slit. So the areas in line with the slits are the last areas to get ‘lighted’ by the incoming electron’s blue-shifted pilot waves, as they shrink down across the wall producing ‘visible’ light. That’s the why of that area being the brightest with only one slit open.
So, by arriving at that back wall., every incoming blue shifted spectrum frequency has brushed every visible color wavelength across every molecule on the surface of that back wall until that photon hits and embeds itself into the wall and the width of its visible light spectrum made zero.
To reiterate, every molecule on that back wall is wiped with every color of the rainbow by every incoming electron’s pilot wave's blue shifted spectrum as the radiated wave-front contracts from full back wall diameter (width) to near zero diameter, and in line with their respective slits.
When the other slit is opened and there are two groups of electrons streaming in and radiating their pilot waves outward. The back panel changes from being fully lighted to showing several pronounced bars of light and dark across its width.... For ease of describing what is happening we will adjust the distance between the wall with the slits and the far wall to produce just five alternating bars of light with the center bar being between the two slits.
The bars of course come from the interference pattern expected when two waves cross. But this is often where the experiment ends and we are left in one of the dark areas as to why all this is happening.
So here’s the rest of it... Looking at the five vertical bars of light that are formed, the wave peaks that create the two bars in line with the slits are at say an arbitrary level ‘2’ intensity. Ignoring the dark canceled out valleys because we all know why they are so.., the interference induced peaks that also occur on either side of each of the two ‘slit’ bars will each be somewhat dimmer. For instance a level of 1-1/2.., and this is the intensity that will be seen at the two outside bars of the five total. The two similar 1-1/2 level peaks towards the middle between the slits will overlap each other and therefore produce the brightest bar with an intensity total of 3.
The above is a typical illustration of a wave interference pattern seen from above... One can relate it to the two slits on the right wall with electrons coming through both and radiating their waves outward, and covering the full width of the left wall... It shows the pattern of mixing that produces the light and dark areas on that wall. You will notice that one of the light areas is between the two wave source slits.
But that is not all there is to it... One must also consider the electrons as they travel from the right to the left walls... All the while emitting the EMS and producing continuously smaller circular rainbows until they shrink to nothing when the electrons hits the wall...
To ease the describing we’ll only be considering the *visible* portion with what follows... Only the circular rainbows of color that are being sent out from that electron in a parabolic shaped forward direction. When the electrons first come through the slits, these cones are at maximum size and fill the rear wall with the largest circle of colors that can be had as the distance the walls are apart... These large circles overlap to a large extent but are offset by the distance between the slits. So each will have the reds on the left and right outside edges that will not be covered by the other rainbow. This is where the red tinge comes from that is seen in most white-light twin slit experiments. The rest of the area of the rear wall will be wiped with all the rest of the colors both by their own slit’s photons as the diameters decrease along with the other slit’s electron's projected waves doing likewise.., to produce white light...
Now I’m not even going to try describing all the mixing that will be going on.., with each electron's blue shifted pilot wave mixing with the ones ahead, behind, above and below with all those various sized circular rainbows of light being projected ahead. The billions and trillions of rainbows of every size being laid down on that far wall at once... I mean it’s very easy to see, with only one slit open, that it will turn out to be white light that is reflected.., except for the extreme outside edges. But I expect it would take a a Cray or two to compute where all the peaks and valleys were at every instant, when the second slit was opened. I’m certainly not able to visualize a pattern forming as the waves all travel from the two slits to the far wall. But it turns out that they do, upon the last fixed impact point, produce the vertical bars.
But for now, all I can come up with is knowing that when you mix more and more frequencies together, which amplify and suppress each other to various extents, you will eventually end up with a square wave result. Is that it..? It may or may not be, and I lean towards the not... But if anyone can shed some light on this please go right ahead...
As for the ‘measuring’ that is being done which causes the interference pattern to stop? I don’t know exactly how those attempts are being done but I expect there are several. Each one of them causing the bars to disappear.. So I expect that when everyone realizes they’re stopping the particles that are producing the waves, that the waves will stop too. And of course the bars too...
So it should be clear to those doing that measuring. You are not just 'observing'.., you are disrupting...
That is the proven physics description of the Twin Slit Experiement.
There's no magic.
And it it certainly shows there is no need for quanta, duality, or any other imagined factor.
Exceeding the Speed Of Light.
See the Cosmos chapter.
Red Shift and Cosmos Expansion
See the Cosmos chapter.
Another indication that light comes to us via a particle with mass and can therefore be deflected by gravity is the well known ‘Gravity Lens’. Many examples exist in the cosmos. When electrons are coming from a distant source that is behind a planet blocking Earth's view of it. We can see that the planet's gravity field bends some of those more outward bound photons around itself to the direction of Earth.
So the Earth is then able to see a very distorted image of that galaxy or star... At least enough to know it's there. The electrons generating the light waves are able to be attracted and bent around the outside edge of the planet. In a perfect situation, with the distant galaxy, planet, and observer all being in a straight line, the light from the galaxy will be seen to form a thin circle of light around the blocking planet. But in most cases, deflected light from distant galaxies will be seen as arcs of various lengths and brightness around the planet.
It is not another force bending light... It is gravity redirecting physical mass.
Spectroscopy is a means to spread visual light waves to see, measure, and record the various intensities of each color or frequency across the spectrum from about 400 to 800 nm... One basic design is seen here...
To this point we have discussed the means by which electrons lay down a continuous ‘vanilla’ spectrum... Along with the explanation of the twin slit experiment. Electron’s with their blue shifted pilot waves passing through the slits to spread their generated EMS against the back wall.
As far as I understand it, Spectroscopy has the still not visible electron’s pilot waves striking the surface of a telescope lens or other focusing ‘prism’ first.... This creates the waves of the visible spectrum, which are focused to pass through a slit to isolate them from ambient light... The waves are then focused into a beam that is passed through a collimator to allign the waves even further. Still white light, the collimated spectrum is then sent to a refraction grating which spreads them into the various wave lengths, the wave’s spectrum of colors, over the area to be studied or recorded.
Until this point I have been talking only about pilot ‘sine’ waves being emitted by electrons. But spectroscopy shows that they are not that pure.. There are various amplitudes, spikes, etc. throughout the spectrum of color laid out by spectroscopy. Points along the original pilot waves that are obviously caused by the elements and molecules of the light source that they came from. The exact reasons are beyond me at this point but here is one possiblity.
The native frequency... That which is blue shifted to the cosmic EM spectrum, depends on the element they came from. When a stream of electron pilot waves are presented to a spectroscope, there would be electrons coming from each of the elements in the source and each would have it’s own waveform, spikes or whatever.., which in turn would be combined with the other elemental pilot waves.
The creating of light from incoming messenger photons is clear... But I’ll leave the reasons for various spectrograph amplitudes, mixing, emission, absorption, etc., to someone more into it for now...
Fire and Soap Bubbles.
Combustion itself seems to be invisible. Combustion ‘flames’ cannot be seen when coming from some highly volatile fuels such as methanol and ether.. I know nothing of chemistry or reactions causing combustion other than it usually needs external oxygen. But I’m sure its heat and energy affect the speed of the electrons that are being emitted. I haven’t tried to figure that out, only where the ‘visible’ flames come from.
With more ‘normal’ fires burning carbon based fuels and such, the electrons are produced and send outward. They then hit and then reflect, refract, filter and/or prism their blue shifted pilot waves through and from the hot combustion gases as they rise upwards, mixing with the cooler air around them as they do. This motion of the gases gives them their flickering wispy look..
It is the otherwise invisible densities or this rising heated air that the electrons encounter. Similar to the multiple colors created and swirling around the film of a soap bubble with its various and always changing angles and thicknesses. The electrons upgoing blue shifted pilot waves are disbursed, refracted, and reflected through and from them. The same as an electrons’s pilot wave is when hitting a prism to produce a rainbow. The prism being a fixed cause of dispersion, but fire of course a much more fluid and fascinating display....